The aim of my research is to provide a foundation of research-based knowledge of how we deal with the things we find difficult in our lives, so I, and we, can better help each other. This basically means that I am interested in how we deal with the mistakes we do. That is, how do we appraise them? How do we feel about them? And what do we do to cope with them?
Hence, my core interest is placed in how a "concern for self-image" (i.e., how is this affecting me) and a "concern for social-image" (i.e., how is this affecting how other people think of me) elicit different feelings and different coping strategies (Gausel & leach, 2011). Typically, when it comes to self-critical feelings, these two appraisals elicit feelings of shame, feelings of inferiority and feelings of rejection (besides of other negative feelings such as anger). Specifically, we see that a "concern for self-image" often elicit felt shame, while a "concern for social-image" often elicit felt rejection. These two feelings (sometimes in conjunction with the appraisals) motivate distinct ways to cope with the situations. Pro-social coping-strategies such as a desire to offer restitution, to repair and communicate contrition often follow felt shame, while self-defensive (avoidance, cover-up) and aggressive responses often follow felt rejection (see Gausel, Leach, Vignoles & Brown, 2012). This means that the model that I, Colin and Viv have developed can actually help us understand when and why people go into self-defensive and aggressive motivation, and when they go into pro-social motivation.
Other than that, I am involved in projects focusing on:
Semantics, identity, emotions and the social bond
- -quantitative measurement and semantics (with Salthe)
- semantics and subjectivity
- denied shame (with Vignoles and Leach)
- communication and the social bond (with Løkkeberg and Giner-Sorolla)
- hedonism vs moral integrity on desire-fulfillment (with Salthe)
- emotions and identification (with Berndsen)
- differences between shame and guilt (with Brown)
- rage (with Leach and Vignoles).
Stigma and identity construction
- stigmatization of unemployed people (with Bourguignon and Herman)
- stigmatization of mental illness (with Thørrisen)
- social consequences of school drop out (with Bourguignon)
- cross-cultural issues (with Cakal)
- contextualism (led by Vignoles)
- subjective experiences concerning minorities (with Ringnes)
Reconciliation and social relations:
- reconciliation in reciprocal conflicts (with Mazziotta, Feuchte, Nadler and Leach)
- trust (with Vasiljevic and Goyle)
- forgiveness (with Mazziotta and Feuchte)
- intergroup anxiety (with West, Cakal and Turner)
In conclusion, I love doing research and I hope the research we do can be of help to you or someone you know.
- Aggression, Conflict, Peace
- Applied Social Psychology
- Close Relationships
- Emotion, Mood, Affect
- Ethics and Morality
- Helping, Prosocial Behavior
- Intergroup Relations
- Interpersonal Processes
- Personality, Individual Differences
- Research Methods, Assessment
- Self and Identity
- Social Cognition
Research Group or Laboratory:
- Centre for Emotion Research
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- Becker, M., Vignoles, V. L., Owe, E., Easterbrook, M. J., Brown, R., Smith, P. B., (…) Gausel, N., (…) & Siugmin, L. (2017). Being Oneself Through Time: Bases of Self-Continuity Across 55 Cultures. Self and Identity. doi: 10.1080/15298868.2017.1330222
- Berndsen, M & Gausel, N. (2015). When majority members exclude ethnic minorities: The impact of shame on the desire to object to immoral acts. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 728-741.
- Gausel, N. (2014). It’s not our fault! Explaining why families might blame the school for failure to complete a high-school education. Social Psychology of Education, 17, 609-616.
- Gausel, N. (2012). Facing in-group immorality: Differentiating expressed shame from expressed guilt. Review of European Studies, 4, 1-7.
- Gausel, N. (2011). The importance of emotions in social work: Thematic directions from a national conference. European Journal of Social Work, 14, 287-291.
- Gausel, N., & Brown, R. (2012). Shame and guilt--do they really differ in their focus of evaluation? Wanting to change the self and behavior in response to ingroup immorality. The Journal of Social Psychology, 152, 1-20.
- Gausel, N., & Leach, C. W. (2011). Concern for self-image and social-image in the management of moral failure: Rethinking shame. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 468-478.
- Gausel, N., Leach, C. W. Mazziotta, A., & Feuchte, F. (2017). Seeking revenge or seeking reconciliation? How concern for social-image and felt shame helps explain responses in reciprocal intergroup conflict. European Journal of Social Psychology.
- Gausel, N., Leach, C. W., Vignoles, V. L., & Brown, R. (2012). Defend or repair? Explaining responses to in-group moral failure by disentangling feelings of shame, rejection, and inferiority. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 941-960.
- Gausel, N. & Salthe, G. (2014). Assessing natural language: Measuring emotion-words within a sentence or without a sentence? Review of European Studies, 6, 127-132.
- Gausel, N., & Thørrisen, M. M. (2014). A theoretical model of multiple stigma: Ostracized for being an inmate with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 15, 89-95.
- Gausel, N., Vignoles, V. L., & Leach, C. W. (2016). Resolving the paradox of shame: Differentiating among specific appraisal-feeling combinations explain pro-social and self-defensive motivation. Motivation and Emotion. 40, 118-139, doi: 10.1007/s11031-015-9513-y
- Mazziotta, A., Feuchte, F., Gausel, N., & Nadler, A. (2014). Does remembering past ingroup perpetration promote postwar cross-group contact? Insights from a field-experiment in Liberia. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 43-52.
- Owe, E., Vignoles, V. L., Becker, M., Brown, R., Smith, P. B., (…) Gausel, N., (…) & Jalal, B. (2013). Contextualism as an important facet of individualism-collectivism: Personhood beliefs across 37 national groups. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 24-45.
- Salthe, G. & Gausel, N. (2014). Wise desire-priorities: Hedonism or moral integrity? Review of European Studies, 6, 109-120.
- Smith, P. B., Vignoles, V. L., Becker, M., Owe, E., Easterbrook, M. J., Brown, R., (…) Gausel, N., (…) & Harb, C. (2016). Individual and culture-level components of survey response styles: A multi-level analysis using cultural models of selfhood. International Journal of Psychology. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12293
- Vignoles, V. L., Owe, E., Becker, M., Smith, P. B., Easterbrook, M. J., Brown, R., (…) Gausel, N., (…) & Bond, M. H. (2016). Beyond the 'East-West' dichotomy: Global variation in cultural models of selfhood. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000175
- Gausel, N. (2014). What Does “I Feel Ashamed” Mean? Avoiding the Pitfall of Definition by Understanding Subjective Emotion Language. In K. G. Lockhart. (Ed.). Psychology of Shame: New Research. (pp. 157-166).Hauppauge, NY, USA: Nova Publishers.
- Gausel, N. (2013). Self-reform or self-defense? Understanding how people cope with their moral failures by understanding how they appraise and feel about their moral failures. In M. Moshe & N. Corbu (Eds.), Walk of shame (pp. 191-208). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Publishers.
- Gausel, N. (2014). Social work as a profession: Made insecure by its own history and Abraham Flexner? In E.N. Arnold. (Ed.) Social Work Practices: Global Perspectives, Challenges and Educational Implications. (pp. 1–8). Hauppauge, NY, USA: Nova Publishers
- Advanced Quantitative Methods and Statistics
- Introduction to Psychology
- Social Emotions
University of Agder
- Mobile: +4792646345
- Skype Name: nicolaygausel